Project of the Russian government Сoat of arms. Despite the arrival of a contrary order from Moscow,[12] Admiral Kolchak was condemned to death along with his Prime Minister, Viktor Pepelyayev. 428, "About the dangers of public order due to ties with the Bolshevik Revolt". Instead, he was handed over to the Left SR authorities in Irkutsk on 14 January. Kolchak took part in the rebuilding of the Imperial Russian Navy, which had been almost completely destroyed during the war. Kolchak visited the American Fleet and its ports, and decided to return to Russia via Japan. The Great Siberian Ice March followed. Director Andrei Kravchuk described the film as follows, "It's about a man who tries to create history, to take an active part in history, as he gets caught in the turmoil. When passing through London he was greeted cordially by the First Sea Lord, Admiral Sir John Jellicoe, who offered him transport on board a British cruiser on his way to Halifax. For example, he lost track of the imperial gold reserves and much of it disappeared. I call upon you, citizens, to unite and to sacrifice your all, if necessary, in the struggle with Bolshevism. Aleksandr Vasilyevich Kolchak, (born Nov. 4 [Nov. 16, New Style], 1874, St. Petersburg, Russia—died Feb. 7, 1920, Irkutsk, Siberia), Arctic explorer and naval officer, who was recognized in 1919–20 by the “Whites” as supreme ruler of Russia; after his overthrow he was put to death by the Bolsheviks. Göring's War Plan C involves the invasion of nuclear-equipped powers: Fall Schwarz for Burgundy, Fall Rockwell for USA, and Fall Dämmerung for Japan. Last photo of Admiral Kolchak taken before his execution in 1920. The White forces re-established a line along the Tobol and the Ishim rivers to temporarily halt the Reds. He refused to consider autonomy for ethnic minorities, refused to collaborate with non-Bolshevik leftists, and relied too heavily on outside aid. [1], His government was based in Omsk, in southwestern Siberia. "[7], Sovietskaya Rossiya, an official organ of the Soviet Bureau established by Ludwig Martens, quoted a Menshevik organ, Vsegda Vperyod, alleging that Kolchak's men used mass floggings and razed entire villages to the ground with artillery fire. Reluctantly, Kolchak accepted the British suggestions and with a heavy sense of foreboding, he returned to Russia. Under Russian law he remains a criminal - just as he was judged in 1920 when captured by Siberian revolutionaries, who found him guilty - without a formal trial - of the killing of thousands of workers and peasants who had revolted against his authority. Birthplace: Bila Tserkva, Kiev Oblast, Russian Empire. As a military commander he was unable to make successful strategic plans or to coordinate with other White Army generals such as Yudenich or Denikin. [6] In March 1919 Kolchak himself demanded one of his generals to "follow the example of the Japanese who, in the Amur region, had exterminated the local population. New York, American Geographical Society, 1928. Anti-Communist risings in Simbirsk, Kazan, Viatka, and Samara assisted their endeavours. The Red counter-attack began in late April at the centre of the White line, aiming for Ufa. Pereira, N. G. O. He tried to defeat Bolshevism by ruling as a dictator but his government proved weak and confused. About 100,000 Siberian partisans seized vast regions from Kolchak's regime even before the approach of the Red Army. Kolchak was educated for a naval career, graduating from the Naval Cadet Corps in 1894 and joining the 7th Naval Battalion of the city. Kolchak was educated for a naval career, graduating from the Naval Cadet Corps in 1894 and joining the 7th Naval Battalion of the city. The Reds were sufficiently confident to start redeploying some of their forces southwards to face Anton Denikin. But as the spring thaw arrived Kolchak's position degenerated – his armies had outrun their supply lines, they were exhausted, and the Red Army was pouring newly raised troops into the area. Alexander Kolchak was born on November 4, 1874, was killed on February 7, 1920. A Kolchak biographical film, titled Admiral (Адмиралъ), was released in Russia on 9 October 2008. White Siberia, N.G.O. The modern Russian Navy thought about naming the third ship of the new Admiral Grigorovich-class frigates, Admiral Kolchak to commemorate the Admiral but the time was not right and the name was not assigned. Personality assessment Kolchak is one of the most controversial and tragic pages of Russian history of the 20th century. Aleksandr Vasilyevich Kolchak, (born Nov. 4 [Nov. 16, New Style], 1874, St. Petersburg, Russia—died Feb. 7, 1920, Irkutsk, Siberia), Arctic explorer and naval officer, who was recognized in 1919–20 by the “Whites” as supreme ruler of Russia; after … 11, No. The Left SR leaders in Russia denounced Kolchak and called for him to be killed. He was approached and refused to take power. Based in Vladivostok, these vessels were sent on a cartographic expedition to the Bering Strait and Cape Dezhnev. Kolchak’s government issued a decree on 3 December 1918 stating, "In order to preserve the system and rule of the Supreme Ruler, articles of the criminal code of Imperial Russia were revised, Articles 99 and 100 of which established capital punishment for assassination attempts on the Supreme Ruler and for attempting to overthrow his government. Postage stamp issued in 1919 with the inscription "For United Russia – Supreme leader of Russia Kolchak". In April, the alarmed Bolshevik Central Executive Committee made defeating Kolchak its top priority. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. In June 1917, after the February revolution, he resigned under pressure and went to the United States. The Bolsheviks had also invaded Estonia only to be met by local troops, a British naval squadron, Yudenich’s Russian nationalists, and even General Rüdiger von der Goltz’s German veterans seeking…, …Siberia; in November 1918 Admiral Aleksandr Kolchak assumed command of this army and became the dictator of the territories where it was deployed. Her mother Daria Fyodorovna was the daughter of Major-General, Director of the Forest Institute F. A. Kamensky, sister of sculptor F. F. Kamensky. The former Tsarist laws were restored. Alexander Vasilyevich Kolchak (Russian: Алекса́ндр Васи́льевич Колча́к, 16 November [O.S. Kolchak was then promised safe passage by the Czechoslovaks to the British military mission in Irkutsk. Kolchak had returned to Omsk on 16 November from an inspection tour. He became an important White army commander during the Russian Civil War, declaring himself supreme commander of all non-Bolshevik Russia in November 1918. 188 of 19 July 1919). Admiral Kolchak was not successful from the time of his taking the position of Supreme Ruler until his death, though it must be borne in mind that he operated under very difficult circumstances. During the autumn and winter of 1914–1915, Russian destroyers and cruisers started a series of dangerous night operations, laying mines at the approaches to Kiel and Danzig. Updates? The film portrays the Admiral (Konstantin Khabensky) as a tragic hero with a very deep love for his country. Extracts from it were published under the title "The Arctic Pack and the Polynya" in the volume issued in 1929 by the American Geographical Society, Problems of Polar Research. The Taseev Soviet Partisan Republic was founded south-east of Yeniseysk in early 1919. He also was tasked with the job of countering any U-boat threat and to begin planning an invasion of the Bosphorus (which was never carried out). There was prominent underground resistance in the regions controlled by Kolchak's government. Alexander Kolchak (1874-1920) served as an admiral in the Imperial Navy. Admiral Essen was not satisfied to remain only on the defensive and ordered Kolchak to prepare a scheme for attacking the approaches of the German naval bases. Next he tried, unsuccessfully, to coordinate White Russian forces in Manchuria. Kolchak’s wife, Sophia Fedorovna Kolchak, was born in 1876 in Kamenetz-Podolsk province. Join Facebook to connect with Alexandr Kolchak and others you may know. 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